Ocular, Neurologic and Systemic Findings of the Cases with Optic Nerve Hypoplasia

Eyyup Karahan1, *, Ayse Tulin Berk2
1 Sifa University, Department of Ophthalmology, Izmir, Turkey
2 Dokuz Eylul University, Department of Ophthalmology, Izmir, Turkey

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© Eyyup Karahan and Ayse Tulin Berk; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-NC 4.0) (, which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Narlı Mah Ecem Sok 42C/7, Narlıdere, 35330, Izmir, Turkey; Tel: 90 232 278 8111; Fax: 90 232 278 6804; E-mail:



To describe the associated ocular, neurologic, and systemic findings in a population of children with optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) and to evaluate the relationship between ocular signs and neurologic findings.


A retrospective chart review of 53 patients with the diagnosis of ONH seen between December 1998 and September 2012 was performed. All neurodevelopmental anomalies, neuroradiologic findings, endocrinologic and systemic findings were recorded. Poor vision was defined as the visual acuity poorer than logMAR 1.0 or inadequate central steady maintained fixation.


Thirty (56.6%) of the 53 children with ONH were boys. Mean age at presentation was 56.2±46.8 months (range; 3 months to 18 years). Poor vision defined for the purpose of this study was found in 47.2% of 53 patients. Thirty-three (62.3%) children had nystagmus. Thirty-four (64.2%) children had strabismus. Thirteen (38.2%) of those with strabismus had esotropia, 20 (58.8%) had exotropia. The total number of the children with neurodevelopmental deficit was 22 (41.5%) in our study.


The vision of young children with ONH should be monitored at least annually, and any refractive errors should be treated. Neuroimaging of the brain and endocrinologic evaluation is necessary in all cases with ONH.

Keywords: Endocrinologic evaluation, neurodevelopmantal anomaly, neuroimaging, optic nerve hypoplasia.