Dry Eye Disease (DED) is a common ophthalmic condition resulting from dysfunction in the ocular surface, main lacrimal gland, meibomian glands, or connecting nerves.


A group of local experts met to discuss local challenges and establish consensus in DED management across the Middle East.


A modified Delphi method was used to reach consensus, comprising two rounds of the survey and a face-to-face meeting. An expert panel of 8 ophthalmologists voted on 23 statements, with consensus reached if ≥75% responded “strongly agree” or “agree” to a statement.


The expert panel reached consensus on 23 statements relating to the pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and management of DED. Diagnosis begins with recording a detailed patient history and assessing subjective symptoms such as redness, burning, stinging, foreign body sensation, and/or photophobia. Tear Break-up Time (TBUT; <10 s), corneal spots (>5), and fluorescein staining are essential for diagnosing DED, assessing disease severity and ocular surface condition, and differentiating between types of DED. Ocular surface lubricants are the mainstay of treatment for DED. Treatment approaches should be categorized by etiology (if known). An improvement in symptoms can be observed objectively via an increase in TBUT, reduction in corneal and conjunctival spots, and restoration of normal tear production, or subjectively via less dependence on ocular surface lubricants, improved vision quality, and symptom amelioration.


This consensus will serve to provide a framework for clinical decisions relating to the management of DED across the region.

Keywords: Dry eye disease, Middle East, Consensus, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Treatment.
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