Anatomical Basis of Clinical Manifestations Seen in Cavernous Sinus Syndrome: A Narrative Review

The Open Ophthalmology Journal 07 May 2021 REVIEW ARTICLE DOI: 10.2174/1874364102115010070


Pathology involving the Cavernous Sinus (CS), generally referred to as Cavernous Sinus Syndrome (CSS), can arise from vascular disorders, neoplasms, infections, and non-infectious inflammatory disorders. An acute understanding of the CS and its regional anatomical structures is therefore pertinent in expounding the highly variable clinical manifestations seen in CSS as well as laying the groundwork for surgical intervention. Though the neuroanatomy of the cavernous sinus has been substantially chronicled in literature, their correlation to clinical signs has only been minimally described. This narrative review serves to address this knowledge gap and aims to comprehensively correlate the clinical manifestations of CSS with the relevant neuroanatomy, thereby allowing medical practitioners to better navigate the diagnostic quandary. We conducted a scoping review of the literature concerning CS anatomy and CSS, complied through MEDLINE/OVID and cross-referencing of articles on PubMed and Google Scholar with the keywords cavernous sinus, cavernous sinus syndrome, clinical signs/manifestations, neuroanatomy, CS pathology, Cavernous Sinus Thrombus (CST) and cavernous sinus neoplasms/tumours.

Keywords: Cavernous sinus syndrome, Cavernous sinus neuroanatomy, Cavernous sinus, Neuro ophthalmology, Cavernous sinus disease, CSS manifestations.
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