Ischemia Modified Albumin (IMA) as a New Biomarker in the Ophthalmology Field: A Brief Literature Review

Emma Rusmayani1, *, Widya Artini1, Muhammad Bayu Sasongko1
1 JEC Eye Hospitals and Clinics, Jakarta, Indonesia
2 Faculty of Medicine, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

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© 2022 Rusmayani et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the JEC Eye Hospitals and Clinics, Jakarta, Indonesia; E-mail:



This study aimed to review the potential role of ischemia-modified albumin as a biomarker for diagnostic modalities in the ophthalmology field.


Articles were reviewed without a specific date. A manual search was also performed by reviewing reference lists of meta-analyses and systematic reviews. All articles were reviewed, and a total of 18 articles were selected by the authors.


Oxidative stress increases structural and functional damage to proteins in many ocular diseases. The human serum albumin is a major circulating protein with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Oxidative stress has been shown to be an important part of etiology and pathogenesis in ocular diseases related to ischemia. Biomarkers that are specific to oxidative stress and ischemia-related ocular pathogenesis are needed to provide an extensive understanding regarding diagnosis, monitoring progression, and new potential target treatment. Ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) as a new promising biomarker might be useful in the early detection and treatment of ocular diseases with ischemic pathogenesis.


IMA plays an important role in the progression of ophthalmology diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy, hypertensive retinopathy, cataract progression, seasonal allergies, and glaucoma. Further studies are needed to elaborate these results as a consideration in new testing modalities in clinical practice as well as a new target therapy research.