Refractive and Topographic Parameters of the Belin/Ambrósio Module in Patients with Refractive Defects in Cuenca, Ecuador

The Open Ophthalmology Journal 06 Mar 2023 RESEARCH ARTICLE DOI: 10.2174/18743641-v17-230223-2022-52



This study aimed to describe the refractive and topographic parameters of the Belin/Ambrósio module in patients with refractive defects at the Latino clinic in Cuenca, Ecuador, between 2017 to 2021.


A descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out. A database included anonymous cases of patients with refractive defects treated at the ophthalmological consultation of a Latino clinic from January, 2017 to June, 2021 was searched. Data was collected using a form containing study variables. Microsoft Excel and SPSS were used for data collection and analysis using frequencies, percentages, and measures of central tendency.


The sample consisted of 120 patients; 61.7% were women, and 38.3% were men. Moreover, 70.8% of patients were young adults. The pachymetry mean of the center of the pupil, apex, and position of lowest pachymetry was 521 µm, 520 µm, and 513 µm, respectively. The means of the flattest keratometry, curviest keratometry, and maximum keratometry were 43.30 D, 46.32 D, and 48.01 D, respectively.


Cases distribution according to anterior and posterior elevation showed pathological values ​​in more than 50% of the studied corneas. According to the average progression index, pathological elevation was found in 18.8% of the cases, and according to the average deviations, 25.4% presented corneal ectasia in different stages.

Keywords: Keratoconus, Belin Ambrósio, Corneal ectasia, Refractive defects, Patients, Corneas.
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