Frontalis Suspension Surgery in Upper Eyelid Blepharoptosis

Yasuhiro Takahashi 1, Igal Leibovitch 2, Hirohiko Kakizaki*, 1
1 Department of Ophthalmology, Aichi Medical University, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1195, Japan
2 Division of Oculoplastic and Orbital Surgery, Department of Ophthalmology, Tel-Aviv Medical Center, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel

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© Takahashi et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Ophthalmology, Aichi Medical University, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1195, Japan; Tel: +81-561-62-3311; Fax: +81-561-63-7255; E-mail:


Frontalis suspension is a commonly used surgery that is indicated in patients with blepharoptosis and poor levator muscle function. The surgery is based on connecting the tarsal plate to the eyebrow with various sling materials. Although fascia lata is most commonly used due to its long-lasting effect and low rate of complications, it has several limitations such as difficulty of harvesting, insufficient amounts in small children, and postoperative donor-site complications. Other sling materials have overcome these limitations, but on the other hand, have been reported to be associated with other complications. In this review we focus on the different techniques and materials which are used in frontalis suspension surgeries, as well as the advantage and disadvantage of these techniques.

Keywords: Frontalis suspension, suspensory material, surgical procedure, ptosis.