Pseudophakic Cystoid Macular Edema Associated with Extrafoveal Vitreoretinal Traction

Michael R Martinez 1, Avinoam Ophir*, 1, 2
1 Division of Ophthalmology, Hillel-Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera
2 The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, The Technion, Haifa, Israel

Article Metrics

CrossRef Citations:
Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 2402
Abstract HTML Views: 1696
PDF Downloads: 1055
Total Views/Downloads: 5153
Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 1024
Abstract HTML Views: 1052
PDF Downloads: 460
Total Views/Downloads: 2536

Creative Commons License
© Martinez and Ophir; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http: // which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Division of Ophthalmology, Hillel-Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel; Tel: 972-547-222688; Fax: 972-35409222; E-mail:



To describe an association between extrafoveal vitreoretinal traction and intractable chronic pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (CME) by the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT).


In a retrospective case series study, charts and OCT findings of patients who had postoperative recalcitrant pseudophakic CME for at least 6 months and vitreoretinal traction membranes were analyzed. Excluded were eyes that either had another vitreoretinopathy that could affect the analysis or had undergone an intravitreal intervention.


Three eyes (three patients) with macular edema following uneventful cataract surgery were detected to be associated with multifocal extrafoveal vitreoretinal traction sites in each. Retinal edema that was underlying each of the traction sites in all eyes was in continuum in at least one site per eye with the central macular edema, thus manifesting as diffuse macular edema.


Chronic pseudophakic macular edema may be related to extrafoveal vitreoretinal traction.

Keywords: Pseudophakic macular edema, macular edema, vitreous traction, extrafoveal traction, OCT.