The Effect of 3D Visual Simulator on Children’s Visual Acuity - A Pilot Study Comparing Two Different Modalities

Takeshi Ide1, 2, *, Mariko Ishikawa3, Kazuo Tsubota 2, Masaru Miyao4
1 Minamiaoyama Eye Clinic, Tokyo, Japan
2 Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan
3 Denenchofu Eye Clinic, Tokyo, Japan
4 Graduate School of Information Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan

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© Ide et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Minamiaoyama Eye Clinic Tokyo. Renai Aoyama Building 4F 3-3-11 Kitaaoyama, Minato-ku, Tokyo 107-0061, Japan; Tel: +81-3-5772-1440; Fax: +81-5772-1442; E-mail:


Purpose :

To evaluate the efficacy of two non-surgical interventions of vision improvement in children.

Methods :

A prospective, randomized, pilot study to compare fogging method and the use of head mounted 3D display. Subjects were children, between 5 to 15 years old, with normal best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and up to -3D myopia. Subjects played a video game as near point work, and received one of the two methods of treatments. Measurements of uncorrected far visual acuity (UCVA), refraction with autorefractometer, and subjective accommodative amplitude were taken 3 times, at the baseline, after the near work, and after the treatment.

Results :

Both methods applied after near work, improved UCVA. Head mounted 3D display group showed significant improvement in UCVA and resulted in better UCVA than baseline. Fogging group showed improvement in subjective accommodative amplitude. While 3D display group did not show change in the refraction, fogging group’s myopic refraction showed significant increase indicating the eyes showed myopic change of eyes after near work and treatment.

Discussion :

Despite our lack of clear knowledge in the mechanisms, both methods improved UCVA after the treatments. The improvement in UCVA was not correlated to measured refraction values.

Conclusion :

UCVA after near work can be improved by repeating near and distant accommodation by fogging and 3D image viewing, although at the different degrees. Further investigation on mechanisms of improvements and their clinical significance are warranted.

Keywords: : 3D, fogging , myopia, vision, visual acuity.