Many Faces of Renin-angiotensin System - Focus on Eye
Mervi Holappa1, Heikki Vapaatalo2, Anu Vaajanen3, 4, *
Identifiers and Pagination:Year: 2017
First Page: 122
Last Page: 142
Publisher ID: TOOPHTJ-11-122
Article History:Received Date: 16/04/2017
Revision Received Date: 17/05/2017
Acceptance Date: 25/05/2017
Electronic publication date: 19/06/2017
Collection year: 2017
open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS), that is known for its role in the regulation of blood pressure as well as in fluid and electrolyte homeostasis, comprises dozens of angiotensin peptides and peptidases and at least six receptors. Six central components constitute the two main axes of the RAS cascade. Angiotensin (1-7), an angiotensin converting enzyme 2 and Mas receptor axis (ACE2-Ang(1-7)-MasR) counterbalances the harmful effects of the angiotensin II, angiotensin converting enzyme 1 and angiotensin II type 1 receptor axis (ACE1-AngII-AT1R) Whereas systemic RAS is an important factor in blood pressure regulation, tissue-specific regulatory system, responsible for long term regional changes, that has been found in various organs. In other words, RAS is not only endocrine but also complicated autocrine system. The human eye has its own intraocular RAS that is present e.g. in the structures involved in aqueous humor dynamics. Local RAS may thus be a target in the development of new anti-glaucomatous drugs. In this review, we first describe the systemic RAS cascade and then the local ocular RAS especially in the anterior part of the eye.