Ocular Signs Related to Overweight and Arterial Hypertension in Children: A Systematic Review



Daniela S. Schuh, Ângela B. Piccoli, Raquel L. Paiani, Cristiane R Maciel, Lucia C Pellanda, Manuel AP Vilela*
Instituto de Cardiologia/Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, Brazil; Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil


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© 2017 Schuh et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Instituto de Cardiologia/Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, Brazil, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil, Tel: +55 51 3395360; E-mail: mapvilela@gmail.com


Abstract

Background:

The ocular effects of obesity and hypertension need to be established and can be used as prognostic markers.

Objective:

To estimate the prevalence of ophthalmological alterations in children and adolescents who are overweight and/or have SAH.

Methods:

The database for this study included all observational studies (CS, cohort, case-control and “baseline” description of randomized clinical trials) with children and/or adolescents who were overweight, obese or had SAH and that measured ophthalmological alterations.

Results:

Comparative studies with healthy children demonstrated positive association between body adiposity with retinal venular dilation, and SAH with retinal arteriolar narrowing. Different retinal fundus cameras and computer-assisted programs to evaluate the retinal vessels, variations in the methods of analysis, adjustments, populations, were the main arguments against formal meta-analysis. The heterogeneity was too high (I2 >90%, in fixed or randomized effects), and the lack of linearity, normal distribution and homoscedasticity did not recommend meta-regression.

Conclusion:

Obesity and SAH show associations with ophthalmological alterations, especially with retinal vessel diameter. Lack of standardization does not allow a quantitative evaluation.

Keywords: Child obesity, Systemic arterial hypertension, Retinopathy, Retinal vessels, Eyes abnormalities.