RESEARCH ARTICLE

Anterior and Posterior Segment Manifestations of Pathological Myopia: A Clinical Study from Turkish Aegean Region

The Open Ophthalmology Journal 30 Oct 2019 RESEARCH ARTICLE DOI: 10.2174/1874364101913010070

Abstract

Background and Objective:

Myopia is one of the most prevalent vision conditions caused by a mismatch between the refractive power and axial length of the eyeball. High myopia may have a degenerative disorder, including cornea, sclera, choroid, optic disc, vitreous, macula, and peripheral retina. Although there are few studies regarding clinical features of pathological myopia, especially in the far-eastern countries where myopia is common, but are no comprehensive data in our region. This study was aimed to demonstrate both anterior and posterior ocular segment manifestations of pathological myopia.

Methods:

One hundred forty eyes of 82 patients who met the pathological myopia criteria were enrolled in this prospective study. Measurements of Central Corneal Thickness (CCT), endothelial cell parameters, Anterior Chamber Depth (ACD), Axial Length (AL) and Subfoveal Choroidal Thickness (SFCT) were performed in all patients. Presence of posterior segment pathologies such as peripapillary atrophy, tilted disc, Lacquer's crack, foveoschisis, myopic maculopathy, Choroidal Neovascularization (CNV), and peripheral retinal degeneration was recorded.

Results:

The mean age was 54.1 ± 14.2 years. 43 (52.4%) of the patients were female. One hundred patients (71.4%) were phakic and 40 (28.6%) were pseudophakic. The mean CCT, corneal endothelial cell density, ACD, AL, and SFCT were 548.91 ± 43.44 µm, 2335.89 ± 374.38 cells/mm2, 3.93 ± 0.79 mm, 28.75 ± 2.20 mm, and 94.56 ± 73.11 µm, respectively. Tilted disc, peripapillary atrophy and posterior staphyloma were detected in 89 (63.6%), 119 (85%) and 78 (55.7%) eyes, respectively. Normal fundus, tessellated fundus, diffuse chorioretinal atrophy, focal chorioretinal atrophy and macular atrophy were seen in 13 (9.3%), 59 (42%), 26 (18.6%), 14 (10%), and 28 (20%) eyes, respectively. Lacquer crack, CNV, and Fuchs spot were observed in 11 (7.9%), 39 (27.9%), and 47 (33.6%) eyes, respectively.

Conclusion:

This study reported clinical characteristics of eyes with pathological myopia in a retina specialty clinic at a tertiary referral center from the Turkish Aegean Region. Pathological myopia may affect both anterior and posterior ocular segments. However, posterior segment manifestations may be associated with lesions that threaten vision. Therefore, periodic follow-up in patients with pathological myopia is critical.

Keywords: Anterior chamber depth, Axial length, Myopic maculopathy, Optical coherence tomography, Pathological myopia, Posterior staphyloma.
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