RESEARCH ARTICLE

Role of Major Histocompatibility Complex Genes in the Susceptibility and Protection of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma and Primary Congenital Glaucoma

The Open Ophthalmology Journal 16 Sept 2021 RESEARCH ARTICLE DOI: 10.2174/1874364102115010151

Abstract

Introduction:

Glaucoma is a prevalent disease seen in the Ophthalmology department that includes a group of neurodegenerative eye pathologies associated with total loss of vision. It is known for its clinical diversity and secondary to this, it is assumed that multiple genes play a role in its pathogenesis. Among these, those that regulate the immune response which includes the HLA genes are of particular interest because they have been associated with a subgroup of glaucoma patients known as Primary Open Glaucoma.

Methods:

In this study, we studied 3 different groups of patients with glaucoma in whom HLA alleles were determined by sequence-specific primers (SSP) technique.

Results:

An association of HLA-DRB1*16 was found with the susceptibility to develop Primary Congenital Glaucoma. In addition, HLA-DRB1*14 was associated with glaucoma without angular dysgenesis, and HLA-DRB1*03 to glaucoma with iridocorneal dysgenesis.

Conclusion:

In conclusion, the data obtained allow us to suggest that glaucoma is a clinical and genetically heterogeneous disease in which one of the subgroups has an autoimmune mechanism in which the Mexican mestizo population shows genetic susceptibility and it differs from POAG with angular dysgenesis and POAG without dysgenesis.

Keywords: Glaucoma, Heterogeneous disease, POAG, Dysgenesis, HLA, Autoimmune mechanism.
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