Correlation from Undiluted Vitreous Cytokines of Untreated Central Retinal Vein Occlusion with Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

MJ Koss1, 2, *, M Pfister1, F Rothweiler3, R Rejdak4, 5, R Ribeiro2, J Cinatl2, R Schubert6, T Kohnen1, FH Koch1
1 Department of Ophthalmology, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
2 Doheny Eye institute, Los Angeles, USA
3 Department of Virology, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
4 Department of General Ophthalmology, Medical University in Lublin, Poland
5 Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland
6 Department of Pediatric Pulmonology, Allergy and Cystic Fibrosis, Children's Hospital, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany

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© Koss et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestrictive use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital of the Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Theodor Stern Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main, Germany; Tel: +49 - 69 -6301 5649; Fax: +49 - 69 - 6301 5621; E-mail:



To correlate inflammatory and proangiogenic key cytokines from undiluted vitreous of treatment-naïve central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) patients with SD-OCT parameters.


Thirty-five patients (age 71.1 years, 24 phakic, 30 nonischemic) underwent intravitreal combination therapy, including a single-site 23-gauge core vitrectomy. Twenty-eight samples from patients with idiopathic, non-uveitis floaterectomy served as controls. Interleukin 6 (IL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) levels were correlated with the visual acuity (logMar), category of CRVO (ischemic or nonischemic) and morphologic parameters, such as central macular thickness-CMT, thickness of neurosensory retina-TNeuro, extent of serous retinal detachment-SRT and disintegrity of the IS/OS and others.


The mean IL-6 was 64.7pg/ml (SD ± 115.8), MCP-1 1015.7 ( ± 970.1), and VEGF-A 278.4 ( ± 512.8), which was significantly higher than the control IL-6 6.2 ± 3.4pg/ml (P=0.06), MCP-1 253.2 ± 73.5 (P<0.0000001) and VEGF-A 7.0 ± 4.9 (P<0.0006). All cytokines correlated highly with one another (correlation coefficient r=0.82 for IL-6 and MCP-1; r=0.68 for Il-6 and VEGF-A; r=0.64 for MCP-1 and VEGF-A). IL-6 correlated significantly with CMT, TRT, SRT, dIS/OS, and dELM. MCP-1 correlated significantly with SRT, dIS/OS, and dELM. VEGF-A correlated not with changes in SD-OCT, while it had a trend to be higher in the ischemic versus the nonischemic CRVO group (P=0.09).


The inflammatory cytokines were more often correlated with morphologic changes assessed by SD-OCT, whereas VEGF-A did not correlate with CRVO-associated changes in SD-OCT. VEGF inhibition alone may not be sufficient in decreasing the inflammatory response in CRVO therapy.

Keywords: Vitreous samples, CRVO, VEGF, MCP-1, IL-6, CBA, SD-OCT.