Aims and Scope

The Open Ophthalmology Journal is an Open Access online journal, which publishes research articles, reviews/mini-reviews, letters and guest edited single topic issues in all important areas of experimental and clinical research in ophthalmology, including use of ophthalmological therapies, devices and surgical techniques.

The Open Ophthalmology Journal, a peer-reviewed journal, is an important and reliable source of current information on developments in the field. The emphasis will be on publishing quality papers rapidly and making them freely available to researchers worldwide.

Recent Articles

Prevalence of Refractive Errors among Children in Saudi Arabia: A Systemic Review

Waleed Alghamdi


The aim of this review was to estimate the prevalence of refractive errors (RE) and uncorrected refractive error (URE) in school-aged children of 4 to 14 years of age in Saudi Arabia.


An extensive search was performed for peer-reviewed studies with data from the Saudi population during the past 20 years. The Cochrane Library, Pubmed, and Embase databases were used. Two independent reviewers evaluated publications and extracted the data. The quality of the studies was evaluated based on a critical appraisal tool designed for systematic reviews. The pooled prevalence of refractive error, uncorrected refractive error and different types of refractive error were estimated by using the random-effects meta-analysis.

Results and Discussion:

Eight school-based studies were included in this review. Among the overall pooled population of 12,247childern, the estimated prevalence of refractive error was 17.5% (95% CI: 11.1- 25). In the five studies that reported uncorrected refractive error (N=10,198), the pooled prevalence was 16.8% (95% CI: 11.4 – 21.3). The overall prevalence of refractive errors was very similar among boys, 16.8 (95% CI: 10.8- 24.1), and girls, 17.7% (95% CI: 10.2 – 25.9). Myopia was the most prevalent refractive error and was present in 40.8% (95% CI: 16.1 – 69.9) followed by astigmatism 29.7% (95% CI: 6.1- 61.7) and hyperopia 28.3% (95% CI: 16.9 – 41.2).


This review highlights the high prevalence of refractive errors and uncorrected refractive error among children in Saudi Arabia. More studies are required using standardised methods in different regions where there is a lack of information on UREs. It is recommended that vision screening programs of children for RE should be implemented at the community level and integrated into school health programmes in order to detect UREs and prevent amblyopia, which is one of the debilitating consequences of URE.

May 24, 2021

Editor's Choice

Comparing Adjuvant Beta Radiation, Mitomycin C, and Conjunctival Autograft in Primary Pterygium Treatment, a Three-year Follow-up Study

Khalil M. Al-Salem, Ahmad T.S. Saif, Passant S. Saif


To compare the recurrence rate of primary pterygium surgery after the adjuvant use of Beta radiation, Mitomycin C, and conjunctival autograft.


180 eyes of 180 patients were included in the study. All cases had primary pterygium excision following the use of adjuvant therapy of Beta radiation or Mitomycin C (0.02% for 5 minutes) or conjunctival autograft. The study was conducted at Fayoum University Hospital, Fayoum, Egypt, and Misr University Hospital. The patients were randomly divided into three groups, with each group comprising 60 patients. Group (A) included patients treated with Beta radiation following Pterygium excision, group (B) patients had primary pterygium excision with the application of 0.02% Mitomycin C for 5 minutes, and group (C) patients had conjunctival autograft to cover the bare area after pterygium excision. Patients were followed up for three years postoperatively.


group A had the highest recurrence rate (33.3%) followed by group B (13.3%), and finally group C presented a recurrence rate of 6.7%. Group B showed the highest rate of intra-ocular postoperative complications, while no intra-ocular complications were recorded in group C. Common complications in groups A and B were scleral melting, keratitis, and Dellen formation.


Using conjunctival autograft after primary pterygium excision gives the best results regarding the rate of recurrence and postoperative complications. Meanwhile, B-radiation or Mitomycin C did not prove to be as good.

December 31, 2020

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