Risk Factors for Primary Open Angle Glaucoma (POAG) Progression: A Study Ruled in Torino

A.G. Actis1, *, E. Versino2, B. Brogliatti1, T. Rolle1
1 University of Torino, Department of Surgical Sciences, Italy
2 University of Torino, Department of Clinical and Biological Studies, San Luigi Gonzaga Medical School, Italy

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© Actis et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-NC 4.0) (, which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Surgical Sciences, Eye Clinic and Doctoral School in Life and Health Sciences Eye Clinic, via Juvarra 19 , 10121, Torino, Italy; Tel: +39 392 2259680; Fax: +30 (0) 11 539024; E-mail:



Aim of this retrospective, observational study is to describe features of a population sample, affected by primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in order to evaluate damage progression on the basis of the emerged individual risk factors.


We included 190 caucasian patients (377 eyes), evaluating relationship between individual risk factors (explicative variables) and MD (Mean Deviation) of standard automated perimetry. We also considered the dependent variable NFI (Neural Fiber Index) of GDx scanning laser polarimetry. Progression has been evaluated through a statistic General Linear Model on four follow up steps (mean follow up 79 months).


Factors reaching statistical significance, determining a worsening of the MD variable, are: age (P<0.0001), intraocular pressure (IOP) at follow up (P < 0.0001), female gender (P<0.0001), hypertension (P< 0.0001) and familiarity (P = 0.0006).

Factors reaching statistical significance, determining a worsening of the NFI variable, are only IOP at follow up (P = 0.0159) and depression (P = 0.0104).


Results of this study confirm and enforce data coming from most recent studies: IOP remains the main risk factor for glaucoma assess and progression; age and familiarity are great risk factors as underlined in the last decades; female sex can be an important risk factors as emerged only in the last years; arterial hypertension should always be evaluated in timing of our clinic follow up.

Keywords: Epidemiology, glaucoma, intraocular pressure (IOP), optic nerve, progression, risk factors, visual field.